Torghatten locality 2: answer

  1. The easy answer is that the sea level has been higher than today. Last ice age a huge glacier covered the Scandinavian peninsula, and therefore pressured down the crust. It rebounded when the glacier melted down, and the sea retreated. Such crustal movements is called isostasy (from Greek: ísos “equal”, stásis “standstill”). When Torghatten became ice-free more than 12 800 years ago, a shoreline was formed at the encircled area, and later raised to c. 100 m above current sea level. Today the crust still rises c. 2 mm per year.
  2. Above the red arrow you see angular stones which are rock falls  from the mountainside above covering old shore-deposits. Above the black arrow the stones are smaller and more rounded due to wave-erosion. In other words, they mark a former shoreline.

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